Seit der Unabhängigkeit der früheren Kolonie Britisch-Indien und einem Krieg zwischen Indien und Pakistan ist Kaschmir geteilt. an Afghanistan, China, Indien und Pakistan. Kaschmir umfaßte ursprünglich die. Gebiete des heutigen Aksai Chin, Azad Kaschmir, Jammu, das Hochtal von. Bei der Teilung Indiens im Jahr erhielten die waren – Indien und Pakistan – anzuschließen.
Kaschmir-KonfliktAm Donnerstag und Freitag soll Indien nach Angaben des pakistanischen Militärs sechs Menschen im von Pakistan kontrollierten Teil Kaschmirs. Kaschmir (Devanagari: कश्मीर, Urdu: کشمیر, Kaśmīr, auch Kashmir) ist eine Region im Heute teilt sich das im Himalaya gelegene Kaschmir in den indischen Unionsterritorien Juli die Entlassung Indiens in die Unabhängigkeit und die Bildung der Dominions Indien und Pakistan beschloss, wurde Kaschmir. Seit der Unabhängigkeit der früheren Kolonie Britisch-Indien und einem Krieg zwischen Indien und Pakistan ist Kaschmir geteilt.
Indien Pakistan Kaschmir How are India and Pakistan reacting? VideoKonflikte in Himalaya-Region: Indien und Pakistan streiten über Kaschmir Im umgekehrten Falle sollten muslimische Minderheitengebiete Eckard Freise der Indischen Union verbleiben. Aus indischen Sicht war die Beitrittserklärung des Maharadscha Junge Deutsche Schauspielerin Indischen Union rechtsgültig und der Einsatz des Militärs gegen Eindringlinge ein Akt der Verteidigung Hostesse Definition territorialen Integrität. Doch Mitte Mai folgte ein Terroranschlag auf eine kleine indische Garnison. Der Kaschmir-Konflikt ist ein Territorialkonflikt um das Gebiet des ehemaligen, aufgelösten indischen Fürstenstaats Jammu und Kashmir. Bei der Teilung Indiens im Jahr erhielten die waren – Indien und Pakistan – anzuschließen. Kaschmir (Devanagari: कश्मीर, Urdu: کشمیر, Kaśmīr, auch Kashmir) ist eine Region im Heute teilt sich das im Himalaya gelegene Kaschmir in den indischen Unionsterritorien Juli die Entlassung Indiens in die Unabhängigkeit und die Bildung der Dominions Indien und Pakistan beschloss, wurde Kaschmir. Am Donnerstag und Freitag soll Indien nach Angaben des pakistanischen Militärs sechs Menschen im von Pakistan kontrollierten Teil Kaschmirs.
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Protesters shouted pro-independence slogans, defied curfews, attacked security forces with stones and burnt police vehicles and government buildings.
The protests subsided after the Indian government announced a package of measures aimed at defusing the tensions in September The Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly election was held in Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir in five phases from 25 November — 20 December The European Parliament , on the behalf of European Union , welcomed the smooth conduct of the State Legislative Elections in the Jammu and Kashmir.
The EU would like to congratulate India and its democratic system for conduct of fair elections, unmarred by violence, in the state of Jammu and Kashmir".
In October , Indian and Pakistani troops traded gunfire over their border in the divided Himalayan region of Kashmir, killing at least four civilians and worsening tensions between the longtime rivals, officials on both sides have said.
The small-arms and mortar exchanges — which Indian officials called the worst violation of a ceasefire — left 18 civilians wounded in India and another three in Pakistan.
Tens of thousands of people fled their homes on both sides after the violence erupted on 5 October.
Official reports state that nine civilians in Pakistan and seven in India were killed in three nights of fighting.
On 8 July , a militant leader Burhan Muzaffar Wani was cornered by the security forces and killed. Following his death, protests and demonstrations have taken root leading to an "amplified instability" in the Kashmir valley.
Curfews have been imposed in all 10 districts of Kashmir and over civilians died and over 17, injured in clashes with the police.
To prevent volatile rumours, cellphone and internet services have been blocked, and newspapers have also been restricted in many parts of the state.
An attack by four militants on an Indian Army base on 18 September , also known as the Uri attack , resulted in the death of 19 soldiers as well as the militants themselves.
Although no-one claimed responsibility for the attack, the militant group Jaish-e-Mohammed was suspected of involvement by the Indian authorities.
The Indians were particularly shaken by the event which they blamed on Islamabad. Response took various forms, including the postponement of the 19th SAARC summit , asking the Russian government to call off a joint military exercise with Pakistan,  and the Indian Motion Picture Producers Association decision to suspend work with Pakistan.
On the Pakistani side, military alertness was raised and some Pakistan International Airlines flights suspended. The Pakistani government "denied any role in cross-border terrorism, and called on the United Nations and the international community to investigate atrocities it alleged have been committed by the security forces in Indian-ruled Kashmir".
In the deadliest incident since , Kashmir separatist terrorist group Jaish-e-Mohammed JEM carried and claimed responsibility for a suicide bomb attack on a military convoy that killed over 40 Indian soldiers on 14 February As India trespassed Pakistan's air space, the incidents escalated the tension between India and Pakistan starting the India—Pakistan standoff.
In August , as Home Minister Amit Shah of India told parliament, a decree abolishing Article of the constitution that gave a measure of autonomy to the Muslim-majority Himalayan region had been signed by president and measure came into force "at once".
India has officially stated that it believes Kashmir to be an integral part of India, though the then Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh , stated after the Kashmir Unrest that his government was willing to grant autonomy to the region within the purview of Indian constitution if there was consensus among political parties on this issue.
According to a poll in an Indian newspaper Indians were keener to keep control of Kashmir than Pakistanis. Michigan State University scholar Baljit Singh, interviewing Indian foreign policy experts in , found that 77 percent of them favoured discussions with Pakistan on all outstanding problems including the Kashmir dispute.
However, only 17 percent were supportive of holding a plebiscite in Kashmir. The remaining 60 percent were pessimistic of a solution due to a distrust of Pakistan or a perception of threats to India's internal institutions.
They contended that India's secularism was far from stable and the possibility of Kashmir separating from India or joining Pakistan would endanger Hindu—Muslim relations in India.
In , the death toll from the last 20 years was estimated by Indian authorities to be over 47, In India's Union Home Minister, Rajnath Singh , demanded that Pakistan desist from demanding a plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir, saying: "If at all a referendum is required, it is needed in Pakistan, where people should be asked whether they want to continue in Pakistan or are demanding the country's merger with India".
Pakistan maintains that Kashmir is the "jugular vein of Pakistan"  and a currently disputed territory whose final status must be determined by the people of Kashmir.
Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population.
Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement , which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir although India was not signatory to the Agreement, which was signed between Pakistan and the Hindu ruler of Jammu and Kashmir.
From to , some organisations reported that the Indian Armed Forces , its paramilitary groups, and counter-insurgent militias were responsible for the deaths of 4, Kashmiri civilians.
During the same period, there were records of 4, women between the ages of 7—70 being raped. Human rights organisations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread rape and murder of innocent civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants.
Former Pakistani President General Pervez Musharraf on 16 October said that Pakistan needs to incite those fighting in Kashmir,   "We have source in Kashmir besides the Pakistan army…People in Kashmir are fighting against India.
We just need to incite them," Musharraf told a TV channel. In Pakistan's outgoing National Security Advisor Sartaj Aziz said that Pakistan wished to have third party mediation on Kashmir, but it was unlikely to happen unless by international pressure.
So then what is the solution? China states that Aksai Chin is an integral part of China and does not recognise its inclusion in the Kashmir region.
It also disputes the region's boundary with Tibet at various locations. Scholar Andrew Whitehead states that Kashmiris view Kashmir as having been ruled by their own in Since then, they believe, it has been ruled in succession by the Mughals , Afghans , Sikhs , Dogras and, lately, the Indian government.
Whitehead states that this is only partly true: the Mughals lavished much affection and resources on Kashmir, the Dogras made Srinagar their capital next only to their native Jammu city, and through much of the post-independence India, Kashmiri Muslims headed the state government.
According to Whitehead, Kashmiris bear an 'acute sense of grievance' that they were not in control of their own fate for centuries.
In , Eugene Black, then president of the World Bank, offered his services to solve the tension over water control.
In the early days of independence, the fact that India was able to shut off the Central Bari Doab Canals at the time of the sowing season, causing significant damage to Pakistan's crops.
Nevertheless, military and political clashes over Kashmir in the early years of independence appear to have been more about ideology and sovereignty rather than over the sharing of water resources.
However, the minister of Pakistan has stated the opposite. The Indus Waters Treaty was signed by both countries in September , giving exclusive rights over the three western rivers of the Indus river system Jhelum, Chenab and Indus to Pakistan, and over the three eastern rivers Sutlej, Ravi and Beas to India, as long as this does not reduce or delay the supply to Pakistan.
India therefore maintains that they are not willing to break the established regulations and they see no more problems with this issue.
Former President of Pakistan and the ex-chief of the Pakistan military Pervez Musharraf , stated in an interview in London, that the Pakistani government indeed helped to form underground militant groups and "turned a blind eye" towards their existence because they wanted India to discuss Kashmir.
According to former Indian Prime-minister Manmohan Singh , one of the main reasons behind the conflict was Pakistan's "terror-induced coercion".
He further stated at a Joint Press Conference with United States President Barack Obama in New Delhi that India is not afraid of resolving all the issues with Pakistan including that of Kashmir " but it is our request that you cannot simultaneously be talking and at the same time the terror machine is as active as ever before.
Once Pakistan moves away from this terror-induced coercion, we will be very happy to engage productively with Pakistan to resolve all outstanding issues.
In , the President of Pakistan Asif Zardari asserted at a conference in Islamabad that Pakistan had indeed created Islamic militant groups as a strategic tool for use in its geostrategic agenda and "to attack Indian forces in Jammu and Kashmir".
Throughout the s, the ISI maintained its relationship with extremist networks and militants that it had established during the Afghan war to utilise in its campaign against Indian forces in Kashmir.
Reportedly, about Rs. In the past, Indian authorities have alleged several times that Pakistan has been involved in training and arming underground militant groups to fight Indian forces in Kashmir.
Human rights abuses have been committed by Indian forces in Kashmir. Militants have also committed crimes. According to Hon. Edolphus Towns of the American House of Representatives, around 90, Kashmiri Muslims have been killed by the Indian government since Of these, 21, are militants, 13, civilians killed by militants, 3, civilians killed by security forces, and 5, policemen killed by militants.
Several international agencies and the UN have reported human rights violations in Indian-administered Kashmir. In a press release the OHCHR spokesmen stated "The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is concerned about the recent violent protests in Indian-administered Kashmir that have reportedly led to civilian casualties as well as restrictions to the right to freedom of assembly and expression.
Another such alleged massacre occurred on 6 January in the town of Sopore. TIME magazine described the incident as such: "In retaliation for the killing of one soldier, paramilitary forces rampaged through Sopore's market, setting buildings ablaze and shooting bystanders.
The Indian government pronounced the event 'unfortunate' and claimed that an ammunition dump had been hit by gunfire, setting off fires that killed most of the victims.
However, the accused are still to be punished. Indian security forces claim they are fighting to protect Kashmiris from militants and Islamic extremists, while militants claim they are fighting for Kashmiri independence and to defend Muslim Kashmiris from an abusive Indian army.
In reality, both sides have committed widespread and numerous human rights abuses and violations of international humanitarian law or the laws of war.
Many human rights organisations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch HRW have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as "extra-judicial executions", "disappearances", and torture.
Indian officials claim that troops need such powers because the army is only deployed when national security is at serious risk from armed combatants.
Such circumstances, they say, call for extraordinary measures. Human rights organisations have also asked the Indian government to repeal  the Public Safety Act, since "a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order.
Some human rights organisations have alleged that Indian Security forces have killed hundreds of Kashmiris through the indiscriminate use of force and torture, firing on demonstrations, custodial killings, encounters and detentions.
There have been claims of disappearances by the police or the army in Kashmir by several human rights organisations. This state action was reportedly denounced by the former National Chief Information Commissioner.
The Indian state police confirms as many as deaths while in custody and enforced disappearances since Indian security forces have assaulted civilians during search operations, tortured and summarily executed detainees in custody and murdered civilians in reprisal attacks.
Rape most often occurs during crackdowns, cordon-and-search operations during which men are held for identification in parks or schoolyards while security forces search their homes.
In these situations, the security forces frequently engage in collective punishment against the civilian population, most frequently by beating or otherwise assaulting residents, and burning their homes.
Rape is used as a means of targetting women whom the security forces accuse of being militant sympathizers; in raping them, the security forces are attempting to punish and humiliate the entire community.
The allegation of mass rape incidents as well as forced disappearances are reflected in a Kashmiri short documentary film by an Independent Kashmiri film-maker, the Ocean of Tears produced by a non-governmental non-profit organisation called the Public Service Broadcasting Trust of India and approved by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting India.
The film depicts mass rape incidents in Kunan Poshpora and Shopian as facts and alleges that Indian Security Forces were responsible.
Dr Seema Kazi holds the security forces more responsible for raping than militants due to rape by the former being larger in scale and frequency.
In areas of militant activity the security forces use rape to destroy morale of Kashmiri resistance. In the particular context of Kashmir where an ethnic Muslim minority population is subject to the repressive dominance of a predominantly Hindu State, the sexual appropriation of Kashmiri women by State security forces exploits the cultural logic of rape whereby the sexual dishonour of individual women is coterminous with the subjection and subordination of Kashmiri men and the community at large.
Former Chief Justice of Jammu and Kashmir High Court noted in his report on human rights in Kashmir: "It is hard to escape the conclusion that the security forces who are overwhelmingly Hindu and Sikh, see it as their duty to beat an alien population into submission.
Some surveys have found that in the Kashmir region itself where the bulk of separatist and Indian military activity is concentrated , popular perception holds that the Indian Armed Forces are more to blame for human rights violations than the separatist groups.
Amnesty International criticized the Indian Military regarding an incident on 22 April , when several armed forces personnel forcibly entered the house of a year-old woman in the village of Wawoosa in the Rangreth district of Jammu and Kashmir.
They reportedly molested her year-old daughter and raped her other three daughters, aged 14, 16, and When another woman attempted to prevent the soldiers from attacking her two daughters, she was beaten.
Soldiers reportedly told her year-old daughter to remove her clothes so that they could check whether she was hiding a gun.
They molested her before leaving the house. Pakistan remains accountable for abuses committed by militants that it has armed and trained. Our people were killed.
I saw a girl tortured with cigarette butts. Another man had his eyes pulled out and his body hung on a tree.
The armed separatists used a chainsaw to cut our bodies into pieces. It wasn't just the killing but the way they tortured and killed.
The violence was condemned and labelled as ethnic cleansing in a resolution passed by the United States Congress.
According to the same resolution, since then nearly , Pandits were either murdered or forced to leave their ancestral homes. According to a Hindu American Foundation report, the rights and religious freedom of Kashmiri Hindus have been severely curtailed since , when there was an organised and systematic campaign by Islamist militants to cleanse Hindus from Kashmir.
Less than 4, Kashmiri Hindus remain in the valley, reportedly living with daily threats of violence and terrorism. On one hand the community did face intimidation and violence but on the other hand he says there was no genocide or mass murder as suggested by Pandits who are based outside of Kashmir.
The displaced Pandits, many of whom continue to live in temporary refugee camps in Jammu and Delhi, are still unable to safely return to their homeland.
According to Indian media, all this happened at the instigation of Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence ISI by a group of Kashmiri terrorist elements who were trained, armed and motivated by the ISI.
Reportedly, organisations trained and armed by the ISI continued this ethnic cleansing until practically all the Kashmiri Pandits were driven out after having been subjected to numerous indignities and brutalities such as rape, torture, forcible seizure of property etc.
The separatists in Kashmir deny these allegations. The Indian government is also trying to reinstate the displaced Pandits in Kashmir.
Tahir, the district commander of a separatist Islamic group in Kashmir, stated: "We want the Kashmiri Pandits to come back.
They are our brothers. We will try to protect them. He says the plan was to leave Muslims alone and bulldoze them freely. The CIA has reported that at least , people from Indian Administered Kashmir are internally displaced, about half of who are Hindu Pandits.
Claims of religious discrimination and restrictions on religious freedom in Azad Kashmir have been made against Pakistan. In , Human Rights Watch accused ISI and the military of systemic torture with the purpose of "punishing" errant politicians, political activists and journalists in Azad Kashmir.
After the elections, Azad Kashmir Prime Minister Sardar Attique Ahmad Khan stated that there were mistakes in the voters list which have raised questions about the credibility of the elections.
In December , the blasphemy laws of Pakistan were extended to Pakistan Administered Kashmir. The area is ruled directly through a chief executive Lt.
Mohammed Shafiq, appointed by Islamabad with a member Northern Areas Council. UNCR reports that the status of women in Pakistani-administered Kashmir is similar to that of women in Pakistan.
They are not granted equal rights under the law, and their educational opportunities and choice of marriage partner remain "circumscribed". Domestic violence, forced marriage, and other forms of abuse continue to be issues of concern.
In May , the United Nations and other aid agencies temporarily suspended their work after suspected Islamists mounted an arson attack on the home of two aid workers after the organisations had received warnings against hiring women.
December India supports East Pakistan's bid to become independent. The Indian air force conducts bombing raids inside Pakistan.
The war ends with the creation of Bangladesh. May Pakistani soldiers and militants occupy Indian military posts in Kargil mountains.
India launches air and ground strikes and the intruders are pushed back. October A devastating attack on the state assembly in Indian-administered Kashmir kills Two months later, an attack on the Indian parliament in Delhi leaves 14 dead.
November Co-ordinated attacks on Mumbai's main railway station, luxury hotels and a Jewish cultural centre kill people. India blames Pakistan-based group Lashkar-e-Taiba.
January Four-day attack on Indian air base in Pathankot leaves seven Indian soldiers and six militants dead. Islamabad denies strikes took place.
India and Pakistan in 'uncharted waters'. India will 'completely isolate' Pakistan. Viewpoint: How far might India go to 'punish' Pakistan?
Now he wants to be a lovely son of America against China. God bless the world. India , USA and Isreael want to burn the world and want to crate third world war.
Sleep and dream you beggar. You and your religion had shown greatest amount of intolerance to other faiths of people in the entire world,bloody swine.
Kashmir acceded to india just like other indian states. There were only 2 options either Free Kashmir or Indian Kashmir.
This explains evrything. Now Pakistan has given POK illegally to 3rd party China. Nothing make sense in this whole. Only reason pak crying overKashmir is Water resources in Kashmir.
They want anyhow accession even at cost of terriorism. People who thinks Kashmir can be free country , they are living by myth.
As long as they will be beside pak, its impossible to maintain freedom. Kashmir kisi ke baap ki jageer nhi hai Both pok and IOk together forms the real kashmir and a seperate country as well.
Anyone here in , look what the Indians ware doing to Kashmir. Killing men women and children. Then look at the rest of the world not doing anything about it.
Indian officials said six civilians, three soldiers and a border guard were killed on their side. Twenty two others were wounded in the Neelum Valley region of Pakistan-administered Kashmir, a Pakistani civil administration official told Al Jazeera.
Indian, Pakistani delegates clash over Kashmir at UN. By APP. Previous article Epaper — January 29 LHR Next article US says prepared to prosecute acquitted Omar Sheikh in Pearl murder case.
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Mountains, Jammu and Kashmir state, India. Resort house on Wular Lake in the Vale of Kashmir, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The Jhelum River at Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir state, India.Since then, Pakistan has refused to hold talks with India, saying Modi must first restore the original status of the Indian-administered Kashmir. Earlier, Shibli Faraz, Pakistan’s information minister, told The Associated Press that Islamabad would resume talks with India when Modi's government agrees to a Kashmir referendum in accordance. India has control of about half the area of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, which comprises Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, while Pakistan controls a third of the region, divided into two de facto provinces, Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. India and Pakistan have fought two of their three wars over Kashmir. In , a car bombing in Indian-controlled Kashmir killed 40 Indian soldiers and brought the nuclear-armed rivals to the brink. Indian, Pakistani delegates clash over Kashmir at UN UN chief urges Pakistan and India to 'come together and seriously discuss their problems' stemming from unresolved Kashmir dispute By APP. Supporters of the Pakistani religious group Jamaat-e-Islami chant anti India slogans during a rally to mark Kashmir Solidarity Day in Lahore, Pakistan, Friday, Feb. 5,